Tetralogy of Fallot: genetics, diagnostics, treatment

Karolina Krikščiūnaitė1, Viktorija Mačiulytė1

1Liethuanina University of Health Sciences, Academy of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithuania


Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common cianotic congenital heart defect. This pathology is determined by various environmental and genetic factors and consists of four parts, but can have some variations as well. Since its first surgery in 1954, possibilities for treatment have increased. With treatment strategies that are used in modern medicine, long – term survival rate is high (30 year survival rate fluctuates from 68,5% to 90,5%). Unfortunately, residual defects such as obstruction of right ventricular flow tract and ventricular arrhythmias are common and require additional interventions. In this review we look over the tetralogy of Fallot, its treatment possibilities that are used today, residual defects and additional interventions.

Aim: analyse and evaluate the latest information involving tetralogy of Fallot: genetics, components, diagnostics and methods of treatment.

Methods: information for this literature review was collected using keywords related to tetralogy of Fallot in “PubMed” database.

Conclusions: Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common cianotic congenital heart defect and represents 7% – 10% of all congenital heart defects. The most common postoperative complications include arrhythmias, right ventricicular dysfunction and other residual effects.

Keywords: Fallot, tetralogy, heart, defect.