Relationship between spermogram parameters, erectile dysfunction and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, assessed by FINDRISK questionnaire, in infertile men: the pilot study

Jūratė Pečeliūnienė¹,², Laura Asadauskaitė³, Marius Anglickis4, Irena Žukauskaitė5, Antanas Norkus6, Birutė Žilaitienė6


¹Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Family Medicine and Oncology;

²Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Pharmacy Center;

³Šeškinė polyclinic;

4Vilnius City Clinical Hospital;

5Vilnius University Faculty of Philosophy, Institute of Psychology;

6Institute of Endocrinology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences



Background: As obesity becomes a global pandemic, the growing numbers of male infertility suggest that chronic non-infectious diseases due to metabolic disorders and lifestyle may have an effect on men’s reproductive health, unexplained infertility.

Aim: to evaluate the relationship between the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in infertile men, assessed by FINDRISK, spermogram parameters and erectile dysfunction.

Methods. The study included 18 men diagnosed with infertility of unknown origin. Patients were required to complete a FINDRISK questionnaire, sociodemographic data questionnaire. The results of their spermogram (motility, normality of form) were evaluated.

Results. The FINDRISK results showed that 4 patients (22.2%) were not at risk for DM. Low risk (FINDRISK < 7) was found in 5 patients (27.8%), slightly increased (FINDRISK 7 – 11 points) – 3 patients (16.7%), moderate (FINDRISK 12 – 14) in 4 patients, high (FINDRISK 15 – 20) in 2 patients (11.1%). Calculated FINDRISK correlations with spermogram parameters showed that the higher the FINDRISK results, the lower the Mobility A. Assessing the correlations of different FINDRISK parameters with spermogram results – the average percentage of sperm in normal form in patients who exercise/otherwise move – 17%, the percentage of those who do not exercise – 5%. Eaters of vegetables, fruits – the average percentage of sperm in normal form was 17%, the average percentage of non-eaters was 5%. Those without a family history of DM had higher Mobility A, higher Mobility B, higher Mobility C  and higher sperm counts were normal. Those with erectile dysfunction had higher FINDRISK scores  and lower Mobility A scores.

Conclusions. According to the FINDRISK questionnaire, men at higher risk for type 2 diabetes also have more pronounced changes in spermogram parameters and erectile dysfunction. More detailed research is needed to assess whether FINDRISK could be a suitable diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of infertility risk.

Keywords: infertility, men, FINDRISK, spremogram, erectile dysfunction.