Outcomes of pregnancy and delivery following in vitro fertilization
Vytautas Abraitis1, Saulė Kržčonavičiūtė2, Marija Vaitkevičiūtė2
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Eivenių g. 2, LT-50161 Kaunas, Lithuania
2Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, A. Mickevičiaus g. 9, LT-44307 Kaunas, Lithuania
Abstract. Background: Researchers discuss the influence of in vitro fertilization (IVF) on outcomes of pregnancy and delivery. The aim of the study was to evaluate the most frequent complications after IVF. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted at LSMU Kaunas Clinics. The sample consisted of 69 IVF pregnant women registered in LSMU Kaunas Clinics in 2019-2020. The results were compared to the control group (n=174). Differences were considered significant when p<0.05. Results: The frequency of miscarriage after IVF was 14.5% (4.6% in the control group) (p<0.05). Preterm labor was detected in 20.3% of IVF subjects (14.9% in the control group) (p>0.05). Higher rates of preeclampsia, gestational anaemia and obstetric cholestasis were found in the IVF group (7.2%, 8.7%, 5.8%) (2.9%, 6.9%, 0.57% in the control group) (p>0.05). A difference was found in both Apgar scores – 1st and 5th minute. IVF newborn average scores were 8.77 and 9.33, respectively (8.96 and 9.58 in the control group, respectively). 52.2% of IVF subjects had Caesarean section (CS) (26.4% in the control group) (p<0.05). 75.8% of CSs in the study group were performed on multiparous pregnancies (14.3% in the control group) (p<0.05). Conclusions: Our study revealed an increased risk of miscarriage and premature delivery after IVF. IVF pregnant women are more likely to be diagnosed with preeclampsia, gestational anaemia and obstetric cholestasis. There is a higher probability to have a CS after IVF compared to natural conception. IVF newborns are rated with lower Apgar scores in comparison to those conceived naturally.
Keywords: IVF, preganancy, delivery, outcomes.