Priapism and chronic myeloid leukaemia. Literature review

Vilius Apanavičius1, Indrė Dzinzinaitė1, Tautvydas Uža1

1Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Academy of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine

 Abstract. Priapism could manifest as the first symptom of advanced chronic myeloid leukaemia. However, it is worth mentioning that priapism is one of the rarest clinical signs of leukostasis and hyperviscosity in CML. Priapism is involuntary, partial or complete, prolonged erection beyond 4 hours without any sexual stimulation. Ischemic priapism is urologic emergency, requiring early diagnosis and urgent treatment. Usually, it consists of local urological interventions and systemic chemotherapy in consultation with haematologists. Aim: to review clinical cases of priapism and CML as described in literature. Methods: literature analysis using PubMed database was performed. The management of this rare pathology was overviewed based on reported cases, urology and haematology guidelines. Conclusions. While there are some cases when CML reveals itself with priapism, it is still a rare sign of this malignancy. A complete blood count must be performed for those with priapism due to possible anaemia and leukocytosis. Distant urological complications could be successfully avoided if both conditions are diagnosed and managed on time.

Keywords: chronic myeloid leukaemia, priapism, oncohaematology, urology.