1 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Academy of Medicine. Faculty of Odontology.
Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) represents more than 90% of all oral cancer cases. It is considered one of the most frequent oral malignancies worldwide with a yearly prevalence of more than 500,000 new cases. OSCC may be found in various anatomical structures in the oral cavity, but usually appears on the lateral border of the tongue, the floor of the mouth and the lower lip. OSCC starts as a complicated process that depends on multiple risk factors such as excessive consumption of alcohol and long-term use of tobacco. During this process, epithelial cells are influenced by genetic mutations which eventually leads to the development of several neoplastic sites all over the oral cavity or in most the cases, will promote an already existed precancerous lesions to keep on growing. The TNM classification which is a famous method of oral cancer staging assists healthcare practitioners in diagnosis the stage of cancer in addition to the regular clinical evaluation. This classification also provides important data regarding the required way of treatment, which may be noninvasive, such as radiotherapy or invasive, such as surgery, which is usually the first option of treatment. OSCC rates of mortality among the general population cannot be completely vanished, but can definitely be reduced by few steps such as lifestyle changes and broad educational programs.
Keywords: Oral squamous cell carcinoma, Oral neoplasms, OSCC risk factors, Non-invasive and invasive detection technique.