Onychomycosis: literature review

Artūras Kriukas1, Norvilė Jotautaitė1, Alisa Maksimova – Česnavičienė1

1 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Academy of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithuania


Onychomycosis is a fungal nail infection caused by dermatophytes, nondermatophytes, and yeast, and is the most common nail disorder seen in clinical practice. Diabetes, HIV, immunosuppression, obesity, smoking, and advancing age are predisposing factors of this fungal infection. It is not only problem of esthetics; however, it may cause local pain, paresthesia, difficulties performing activities of daily life, and impair social interactions. Microscopy and culture are considered the current standard for diagnosing onychomycosis, revealing both fungal viability and species identification. Methods to treat onychomycosis are varied, using therapies that can be categorized as topical, oral or device related. Preventative strategies, to help decrease recurrence and reinfection rates, include sanitization of footwear and prophylactic topical antifungal agents. 

Keywords: onychomycosis, dermatophytes, diagnosis, treatment.