Macular changes obtained with optical coherence tomography angiography in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus – literature review

Dovilė Venclovaitė1, Liucija Mažonaitė2

1Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithuania

2Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Kaunas Clinics, Department of Ophthalmology, Kaunas, Lithuania


Background. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a disease in which relative or absolute insulin deficiency leads to the development of hyperglycaemia, which can cause microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy. Type 1 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes in children and adolescents worldwide. Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of diabetes, caused by hyperglycemia damaging small blood vessels of the retina, it can lead to blindness, which is why it is so important to diagnose the disease and to correct its risk factors such as hypertension, poor glycaemic control and obesity. Optical coherence tomography angiography is a new method of retinal imaging that can non-invasively diagnose the changes specific to diabetic retinopathy.

Methodology. Four scientific publications were selected from the „PubMed“ and „Science Direct“ databases based on keywords and inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Results. Four studies were analysed where children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and healthy children were examined using optical coherence tomography angiography. Statistically significant correlations were observed when comparing retinal capillary plexuses vessel densities between the study groups. Statistically significant correlations were also found between retinal capillary plexuses vessel densities and duration of the disease and glycated haemoglobin values.

Conclusions. The study found presence of microvascular changes in macula in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and significant associations with both diabetes duration and glycated haemoglobin. Optical coherence tomography angiography can be used for the early detection of diabetic retinopathy in children.

Keywords: type 1 diabetes mellitus, macula, optical coherence tomography angiography, diabetic retinopathy.

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