General characteristics of primary arterial hypertension

Gerda Želvytė 1

1Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania


 Globally, arterial hypertension affects more than 1.2 billion of human population. Because people are living longer nowadays, the prevalence of the disease is now expected to increase. The World Health Organization estimates that 54% of strokes and 47% of all heart disease cases are caused by high blood pressure. Primary arterial hypertension is diagnosed, when arterial blood pressure is more than 140/90 mm Hg, and the reason for this remains unknown. It is thought that environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of this disease. Often these patients do not experience any symptoms, but some may suffer from headaches, palpitations, percussion, visual disturbances, shortage of breath, and thus weakness. Treatment may be medical and non-medical. Lifestyle changes such as smoking cessation, weight loss, and decreased salt intake can decrease blood pressure. When applying the medication, it is vital to rely on the latest recommendations and monitor which medications help the most.

Objective: to analyze the latest scientific publications reviewing the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of PAH.

Methods: literature sources were searched in the following databases: Pubmed, Uptodate, Cohrane, ScienceDirect. During the writing of the article, the most relevant and suitable scientific articles and scientific publications were selected. This article presents a generalized analysis of the scientific literature on the topic “General characteristics of primary arterial hypertension”.

Conclusions: a larger section of the population is expected to develop PAH in the future. Lifestyle changes, regular measurement of arterial blood pressure in primary care centers, improved access to physicians, and treatment based on recommendations can help reduce the prevalence of PAH, improve treatment and outcomes.

Keywords: primary arterial hypertension, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment.