Cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 infection

Gerda Želvytė 1

1Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania


 COVID-19 is a rapidly spreading respiratory infectious disease caused by  severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This virus was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan Province, China. The overall mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection is about 2%, but in patients with comorbid diseases are at higher risk and  mortality increases up to 10%. In COVID-19 disease, all organs that express ACE II receptors can be affected. Recently, more and more information becomes available about coronavirus direct and indirect effect on cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular complications are common in patients with covid disease. These patients may develop myocardial infarction, myocarditis, heart failure, arrhythmias, and other threatening diseases and conditions associated with poor prognosis. SARS-CoV-2 viral infection can be responsible for  atherosclerotic plaque rupture, direct heart damage and coagulation system disorders.

Objective: to review the latest scientific publications about the most common cardiovascular complications of Covid-19 infection.

Methods: literature sources were searched in the following databases: Pubmed, Uptodate, Cohrane, ScienceDirect. The newest articles on the topic were evaluated and analyzed. A summarized analysis of scientific articles is presented in this review about „Cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 infection“.

Conclusions: COVID-19 infection is associated with a high risk of developing cardiovascular complications. Some drugs used to treat COVID-19 may also contribute to the development of these pathologies. It is important to use thromboembolic prophylaxis in these patients who suffers from SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is also worth remembering that the best protection against coronavirus infection is vaccines that effectively provide up to 95% immunity.

Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus, cardiovascular complications, myocarditis, heart failure, coagulation disorders, myocardial infarction, thromboembolic complication.