Etiology, diagnostics and treatment possibilities of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

Urtė Venclovaitė1, Ugnė Turauskaitė2, Andrius Kulikauskas3

1 Department of Radiology, Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Kaunas Clinics

2Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Academy of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithuania

3Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius, Lithuania


Systemic nephrogenic fibrosis is a disease, originated at the beginning of this millennium and caused by the use of a contrast agent with gadolinium in radiological studies. The main risk factor for the development of this pathology is kidney disease. Systemic nephrogenic fibrosis usually develops due to an exaggerated fibrogenic response. The specific methods of diagnosis and treatment of this pathology are not known at present, therefore it is very important to delve into the recently identified new risk factors, vulnerable groups of people in order to prevent this pathology. Aim: To select and analyze expert presented causes, diagnostics and recommendations for the treatment of Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis. Methods: the review of literature was conducted using the „PubMed“ medical database, selecting publications, investigating the burden of Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis. Conclusions: After analysis of the literature main causes, diagnostics and treatments methods of Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis are presented.

Keywords: Gadolinium-Induced Fibrosis, Nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy, NSF, Gadolinium, Renal failure, Etiology, Diagnostics, Treatment.