Cerebral palsy: etiology, classification, clinical characteristics, diagnostics, complications and treatment

Vaida Narvilienė1

1Vilnius university, Medicine faculty, Vilnius, Lithuania



Cerebral palsy is a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to nonprogressive disturbances that occurred in the development in fetal or infant brain.

Aim: To analyse the scientific literature about 1) aetiology, 2) classification, 3) diagnostics, 4) complications and 5) treatment of cerebral palsy.

Methods: Literature review was done based on scientific articles from various databases: UpToDate, PubMed, Medscape, ScienceDirect and others.

Conclusions: 1.Preterm infants with lower than 1500g weight are at the highest risk of cerebral palsy. 2. There are four types of cerebral palsy: spastic (diplegic, hemiplegic or qadriplegic), dyskinetic (dystonic and choreoathetoid), ataxic and mixed. 3. Diagnosis is based mostly on clinical examinations, using standard neurological examination tests, also MRT and laboratory tests. 4. The most common complications of cerebral palsy are pain, intellectual disability, epilepsy, speech impairment. 5.The goals of treatment are to improve functionality and capabilities toward independence, to minimise disability.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, spasticity, ataxia, dyskinezia.