Alzheimer’s disease: etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, treatment

Justina Ragauskaitė1

1Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Academy of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithuania

Kaunas, Lietuva


        Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia worldwide, with the prevalence continuing to grow due to the aging of world population. This neurodegenerative disease process is characterized by two distinct pathologies: the deposition of β-amiloid as a neuritic plaque and the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein as a neurofibrillary tangle in the cell. Symptoms of AD begin with mild memory disorders that progress to dementia over time. Despite centuries of progress in research and modern methods of brain imaging, it is still difficult to distinguish AD from many other neuropathologies causing dementia. Diagnosis of AD includes clinical examination of the patient, examination of biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid and imaging. There is currently a lack of effective treatment to prevent and slow down the progression of AD. Many treatments strategies have been introduced in recent decades, while treatment is now focused on symptomatic therapy. Ongoing research to find disease-modifying drugs is being actively pursued. In this article, we will discuss AD risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, diagnostic options, and treatment.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, Aβ protein, biomarkers, treatment.