Allergic conjunctivitis: etiopathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnostic, treatment

Ligita Pilkytė1, Miglė Jurgelėnaitė1, Ugnė Masilionytė1

1Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Academy of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithuania Kaunas, Lietuva



Allergy spread increases every year. One of the most commonly diagnosed is conjunctivitis, an inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye. Clinical symptoms are redness of the eyes, itching and tearing. Allergic conjunctivitis can be caused by various allergens, the most common – pollen, house dust mites, mold. Allergies are classified according to their manifestation: seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, giant papillary conjunctivitis, vernal (spring) keratoconjunctivitis and atopic conjunctivitis. Diagnosis of the disease is based on clinical, laboratory and instrumental tests. Most common laboratory tests are conjunctival allergen provocation test, skin prick test. Diagnostic possibilities are very wide, this article describes less frequently performed tests, because they are very important in the more complex course of the disease. When suffering from this disease eye care and allergen avoidance are important – keeping windows closed during the allergen season or removing carpets at home, switching bedding to hypoallergenic – are key in the prevention of allergies. Treatment is not complicated, local eye drops and antihistamines, glucocorticoids are most often used. The pathogenetic treatment of the disease is allergy-specific immunotherapy. Allergens are injected or applied under the tongue, which strengthens immune tolerance.

Keywords: allergy, immunoglobulin E, pollen, conjunctivitis, diagnosis, immunotherapy.