Isolated CNS relapse in acute myeloid leukemia: case report

Viktorija Sabaitytė1

1 Medical Academy, Vilnius University, Vilnius Lithuania


Introduction: isolated CNS relapse is quite rare, ranging from 2,9 to 11 percent in patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). It is usually related with resistance to treatment and worse clinical outcome. Thus, it is important to have intensive therapy regime in order to avoid hematological relapse as well. Meningeal leukemia treatment can include systemic and intrathecal chemotherapies and radiotherapy. 

Clinical case: this article reviews a clinical case of a 62 years old female patient admitted to hospital presenting with head dizziness continuing for 6 months, muscle pain in sacral area and lower limbs, loss of weight. This patient was diagnosed with AML 4 years ago, however, she was in remission ever since. Blood laboratory tests were normal. Head CT showed features consistent with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Cerebrospinal liquor revealed increased cytosis and blasts.

Conclusion: CNS relapse in AML on the average of 2 years after the remission is reached. Survival rates for these patients are poor. There is no unified opinion about prevention therapy and treatment for these patients. For this reason, there is great need for further studies on this topic.

Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia, isolated CNS relapse, case report.