Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania
Background. The first echoendoscope was introduced only as diagnostic tool in 1980 and it was mainly used to diagnose tumors, located in mediastinum, pancreas, liver or biliary tree. Therapeutic procedures using endoscopic ultrasound became possible only in 1991, when first linear echoendoscope and needle compatible with it were introduced. During past two decades echoendoscope and its accessories were improved, therefore complex therapeutic procedures using endoscopic ultrasound, such as gallbladder and biliary drainage, pancreatic duct and peripancreatic fluid drainage, pancreatic tumor ablation, brachytherapy, celiac plexus neurolysis, gastroenterostomy and many others, became possible.
Aim. To discuss the recent literature describing endoscopic ultrasound guided gallbladder drainage. Procedure is discussed in terms of its indications, technique, results and adverse events.
Methods. The literature search was performed in the PubMed database by entering relevant keywords in various combinations into the regular and advanced search fields, as well as using the bibliographies of the articles found. A total of 33 publications were found during the review, with 19 scientific publications based on the inclusion criteria.
Conclusion. Literature indicates that endoscopic ultrasound guided gallbladder drainage can be safely performed on patients with acute cholecystitis, whose condition does not permit surgical treatment. Present studies allow to conclude that endoscopic ultrasound guided gallbladder drainage is safe and efficient. However, in order to confirm endoscopic ultrasound guided gallbladder drainage as first-line treatment on patients with acute cholecystitis, whose condition does not permit surgical treatment, further large prospective multicenter studies are needed.
Keywords: endoscopic ultrasound, therapeutic procedures, gallbladder drainage.