Complications of liver cirrhosis: prophylaxis and treatment

Antanas Dambrauskas1, Domantas Jakštas1, Rūta Žekevičiūtė1 

1Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Medical Academy, Faculty of medicine


Liver cirrhosis is a late stage hepatic fibrosis characterized by distortion of hepatic architecture and presence of regenerative nodules. It is considered to be an irreversible state, with a possibility of severe complications, such as portal hypertension, ascites, bleeding from varicose veins of esophagus, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Several different methods are used to prevent patients from appearance of these complications and to treat if appeared.

Aim : In this article we discuss the prophylaxis of complications of liver cirrhosis and their treatment

Materials and methods: we have conducted a thorough literature search using predetermined keywords on “PubMed” database. We have analysed an extensive amount of publications regarding this disease.

Results: after concluding the literature search we conclude that portal hypertension is the most devastating complication of liver cirrosis, leading to other problems, such as ascites, spontaneurs becterial peritonitis, bleeding from esophageal veins and hepatic encephalopathy, therefore, great care must be take to avoid this condition. Portal hypertension can be managed by lifestyle changes as well as by medical therapy – mainly by β blockers, statins and other medications. Other complications should me managed acordingly, bleeding from esophageal veins should be ligated by endoscopy and ligation procedures, prevented by medical therapy. Ascites – by management of patients nutritions and duretic therapy, hepatic enepalopathy – by inducing osmodiarrhea and other medications.

Keywords: liver, cirrhosis, complications.