Benign prostatic hyperplasia: etiology, diagnostics and treatment

Vilius Apanavičius1, Justė Gudavičiūtė1, Rapolas Gaižutis1

1 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Academy of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine


Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a very common disorder in aging men over 40 years old and is defined as a histologic diagnosis attributing to the proliferation of smooth muscle and epithelial cells, which results in an enlarged prostate gland and could cause lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). BPH could be suspected by patient history and physical examination including digital rectal examination (DRE). Clinical diagnosis of BPH is determined by the presence of symptoms triad: lower urinary tract symptoms, a benign prostatic enlargement and a bladder outlet obstruction. For a long time open prostatectomy was considered to be the main treatment of BPH, later transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) became as the gold standard. Moreover nowadays a number of safe and effective medical treatments and minimally invasive procedures is increasing. Management of BPH is complex, including lifestyle changes, medications and surgery.

Aim: to provide most effective diagnostic and treatment methods for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Methods: the review of literature was performed using „PubMed“ database using the predetermined keywords, and selecting publications investigating the burden of this disease.

Conclusions: after conducting the review of literature we present main causes, diagnostics and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Keywords: benign prostatic hyperplasia, etiology, diagnostics, management.