Saulius Galgauskas1, Greta Paulaitytė2
1Vilniaus universiteto ligoninės Santaros klinikų Akių ligų centras
2 Vilniaus Universitetas, Medicinos fakultetas.
Keratoconus is a progressive, non – inflammatory eye disease that affects young people and leads to astigmatism and significant vision loss. While the etiology of the disease remains unclear, it is considered a multifactorial disease that is affected by biochemical, physical and genetic factors. It is believed that environmental factors can lead to its occurence in individuals with genetic predisposition. Keratoconus has previously only been diagnosed in the already advanced stages. There has been no means of preventing its progress and preserving vision. When rigid contact lenses were first employed, they were effective in correcting vision, but due to discomfort not all patients could tolerate them. Corneal transplantation was the only solution to improve vision for patients who could not do so with spectacles or contact lenses, but it is quite difficult operation and can cause various complications. Recent advancements in technology, diagnostics and innovative treatment have lead to significantly earlier diagnosis of keratoconus and the potential to slow its progression and even improve vision.
We report two clinical cases implementing two different keratoconus treatment methods. The first depicts a 34 year-old female with keratoconus first diagnosed in 2003 implementing the use of rigid contact lenses since 2004. The second case depicts a 34 year-old male with keratoconus first diagnosed in 2007, who underwent corneal cross-linking as treatment of the left eye in 2018.
The aim of this study is to describe two clinical cases and review both lithuanian and international publications regarding keratoconus diagnosis and treatment options.
Keywords: keratoconus, cornea, diagnosis, contact lenses, corneal cross-linking