Augustina Kraujutaitytė1, Gintarė Jonikaitė1
1Medical academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania
Caesarean section – it is an intervention that is performed when mother’s and (or) fetus’s health and life is in danger. The caesarean operation that is performed without any medical reasons can put mother’s and (or) fetus’s life in danger. World health organization (WHO) because of the needed balance between benefit and damage recommends performing caesarean section no more than 10-15% of all deliveries. Unfortunately, these recommendations are fully accomplished only in few countries. In lots of countries WHO recommendations are hardly accomplished because every year the number of caesarean section is rising, and in some countries, it even seeks over 50% of all deliveries. The growth of the number rises the concerns that induce the obstetrics-gynecology doctors and health policymaking workers to start analyzing the causes of caesarean section demands and ways of reducing them. By this relevant and becoming highly important theme in nowadays world we decide to do literature review by relying on many different scientific studies.
This literature review is discussing the caesarean section operation and its epidemiology, risk factors, indications, causes and ways of reducing them. While examining the results of researches, it was also ascertained that there are countries where the number of caesarean section is decreasing. We found the most common risk factors for caesarean section: the age of a woman, the caesarean section that was had before, gestational diabetes, epidural analgesia. This study sorted out the problem that was discussed the most – lots of women who are giving birth to a child demand the caesarean section without any medical indications. We grouped into two main ways how to decrease the number of caesarean operations. The first one is by changing the psychology of women who are giving birth and the second one is the solutions of medical situations that could decrease the number of caesarean sections. The purpose of this article: review science researches that affect this relevant topic and pay attention to ways that can reduce rates of caesarean sections.
Keywords: ceasarean section, epidemiology, risk factors, indications