1Lithuanian university of health sciences, faculty of Medicine
Human microbiome is a community of microorganisms inhabiting the human body. Symbiotic relationship between skin and microbiome forms protective barrier between environment and skin. Interest has recently expanded about microbiome in the treatment, prevention and pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases. Therefore, review was conducted to investigate effects of probiotics on skin diseases. Aim: to select and analyze of clinical trials in probiotics and inflammatory skin diseases, to assess the effect of probiotics on skin diseases. Methods: review of the literature was conducted using the electronic medical database “PubMed” (MEDLINE), selecting clinical trials which describes effects of probiotics on inflammatory skin diseases. Combination of the key terms “probiotics”, “microbiome”; “inflammatory skin disease” and “dermatology” was used. Results: nearly 7000 subjects included in clinical trials which estimated effectiveness of oral probiotics for treatment of AD and disease prevention. AD severity significantly improved by oral Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus spp. Oral probiotics also had a preventive effect on the incidence of children AD. In all included studies, topical probiotics improved severity and symptoms of AD such as itching, erythema, scaling, local inflammation. Topical probiotics with S. epidermidis, S. hominis, S. capitis, S. warneri and L. johnsonii reduced S. aureus amounts on the skin, which correlates with the severity of the disease. Antibiotics and oral probiotics significantly improved acne vulgaris treatment efficacy to compare with monotherapy with antibiotics or probiotics. 12 weeks of daily oral probiotics with L. bulgaricus, S. thermophilus significantly reduced acne vulgaris inflammatory lesions and sebum secretion. The number of acne vulgaris lesions also significantly diminished after 12 weeks treatment with topical probiotics. CRB, TNF-a decreased significantly for patients with psoriasis who received probiotics, but no clinical improvement observed. Conclusion: Clinical studies have established the relationship between inflammatory diseases and microbiome. Probiotics were effective in the clinical course of atopic dermatitis and acne vulgaris. Investigated preventive effect of probiotics on atopic dermatitis.
Keywords: Probiotics, microbiome, inflammatory skin diseases.