Treatment specifics in Meniere’s disease: a review of the literature

Ksenija Kuzborskaja-Riaukė1

1Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Academy of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithuania


Introduction. Meniere’s disease is an idiopathic disorder of the inner ear, clinically characterised by fluctuating sensory hearing loss, tinnitus, and sudden spontaneous recurrent attacks of vertigo. It‘s a multi-etiological condition, the onset and development of which is caused by the combined effects of genetic and environmental factors. The pathophysiology of Meniere’s disease is attributed to endolymphatic hydrops (excess fluid) in the labyrinth of the inner ear, possibly due to overproduction of endolymph or insufficient absorption. The treatment of Meniere’s disease is primarily aimed at reducing the frequency, course and severity of episodes of vertigo, tinnitus and impeding hearing loss. Treatment of acute episodes is symptomatic and further treatment is aimed at preventing progression of the disease and relieving symptoms.

Aim: to conduct a review of the scientific literature to clarify the treatment of Meniere’s disease.

Methods. PubMed and Google Scholar databases were used for the literature review. English-language articles were selected, with priority given to publications not older than 5 years. For the review, 56 articles were analysed for the period 1997-2022. 34 scientific publications were selected for review.

Conclusions. There isn‘t universally accepted treatment for Meniere’s disease. Conservative treatment with diet is used to halt the progression of the disease, if unsuccessful, treatment can be continued with betahistine, diuretics, intratympanic corticosteroids or gentamicin. Surgical procedures such as endolymphatic sac surgery, labyrinthectomy or vestibular neurectomy may be used to stop the symptoms.

Keywords: Meniere‘s disease, endolymphatic sac surgery, labyrinthectomy, vestibular neurectomy.

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