The link between menopause and its treatment with the risk of cardiovascular disease: literature review

Augustina Zaveriuchaitė1

1 Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius, Lithuania


Background. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for women and its incidence is increasing after menopause. For women, ischemic heart disease usually develops a few years later than for men. This finding led to the hypothesis that menopausal transition contributes to an increased risk of coronary heart disease.

Aim. To review scientific literature about characteristics of menopause and and its hormonal treatment with the risk of cardiovascular disease.

 Materials and methods. The review of the literature was conducted using the PubMed. The literature research was conducted using predetermined keywords: menopause, perimenopause, cardiovascular disease. 934 articles were ruled out according to their title and abstract non-compliance to the subject. More than 50 articles in English published between 1989 and 2022 have been examined.

Results. The menopause transition is the period of significant symptomatic, hormonal, menstrual, and other physiological changes associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. Prevention of cardiovascular disease in women as well as in men should be started early. Data collected over the last thirty years have shown that hormone therapy for menopause has cardioprotective effects that depend on a woman’s health status and handling characteristics.

Conclusions. Assessing menopausal transition characteristics and cardiometabolic changes in chronological aging it was proven, that these factors, which depend on the stages of reproductive aging, are associated with a risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Studies and observations have shown a cardioprotective effect of menopausal hormone therapy.


Keywords: menopause, perimenopause, cardiovascular disease.