Tetralogy of Fallot diagnostic, management and follow-up: literature review

Gustė Burneikaitė1

1Hospital of Vilnius University Santaros Clinics, Cardiology and Angiosurgery center, Lithuania


Introduction. Tetralogy of Fallot is one of the most common blue heart defects. It is found in approximately 0,05% of live births. The defect is equally common regardless of sex and may be related to other genetic syndromes. The number of patients surviving to adulthood is increasing. In addition, the need for repeated interventions is increasing.

Aim. To review diagnosis and initial management, need of reintervention and follow-up of tetralogy of Fallot.

Methods. A review was made after gathering publications and articles from these databases: PubMed, UpToDate. Relevant keywords were entered in the advanced search panel. After reviewing all the exclusion criteria, 41 scientific articles were included in this literature review. Review period is 2006 – 2021 with 4 older publications.

Results. Tetralogy of Fallot is one of the most common multietiological blue heart defects. Diagnosis is usually made during prenatal examinations. Anatomical surgical correction is performed in infancy or childhood, rarely in adulthood. The need for reintervention depends largely on the degree of regurgitation of the pulmonary artery valve. Recommendations for reintervention is given in European Society of Cardiology guidelines. Patients should be monitored at a specialized center.

Conclusions. Tetralogy of Fallot is blue heart defect most commonly diagnosed in infancy. The patient must undergo anatomical correction of the defect. As medicine advances reintervention is often needed, all remaining defects are preferred to be fixed through a single intervention. Patent monitoring should be performed at specialized center.

Keywords: Fallot tetralogy, treatment, follow-up, reintervention, pulmonary artery valve replacement.