Papillary thyroid tumor: etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

Rasa Toleikytė1, Aistė Čemerkaitė1,  Gabrielė Kapūstienė1

1Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Medical Academy, Faculty of Medicine



Thyroid tumors are quite rare, but it is one of the most common endocrine tumors. Thyroid papillary carcinoma accounts for as much as 80 percent. of all thyroid tumors. The average age at which this disease is diagnosed the most is 40 years. It is less common in men than in women. Recently, more and more of these tumors are being detected due to better diagnostic capabilities. Nevertheless, the prognosis for papillary thyroid carcinoma is good, with survival of as much as 90 percent. It has been observed that these tumors are recorded more 5 – 10 years after the radiation incident, when radiation exposure in humans increases. Also, the risk of developing the disease is greatly increased by a family or former tumor. The main pathogenetic factor in the development of papillary thyroid carcinoma is a mutation in the genes encoding certain thyroid proteins. As a result, uncontrolled cell division begins and a tumor forms and grows. Thin needle aspiration (APPA) is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. Ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland helps to decide which nodules are suitable for APPA. Cytological examination of thyroid tissue selects patients who require surgical treatment and do not require invasive therapies. The main treatment for a papillary thyroid tumor is surgery. However, the most appropriate scope for the operation is under discussion. Although previously> 1 cm. tumors were preferred to total thyroidectomy, the latest guidelines indicate an alternative, smaller-scale procedure, lobal ectomy, depending on the characteristics of the tumor and the patient’s functional condition and age. While differences of opinion still prevail, the individual method of treatment becomes important.

 Keywords: differentiated thyroid tumor, thyroid, papillary thyroid tumor, papillary thyroid carcinoma, carcinogenic effects of radiation, thin needle aspiration, thyroidectomy, lobectomy.