Overview of the etiology, epidemiology, clinical, diagnostic, treatment and prevention of kidney stones

Ieva Jurkutė1, Eglė Žukauskaitė1

1Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Medical Academy, Faculty of Medicine


Background and aim. Kidney stones have always been a common disease among urological patients. As the pace of life accelerated, it became even more prevalent among people of all ages and genders. The beginning of stone formation is mostly associated with eating habits, decreased fluid intake, obesity, and lifestyle, therefore much attention is paid to the prevention of this disease. The aim of this article is to find out the cause of nephrolithiasis, its prevalence in Lithuania and other countries, the main symptoms and diagnostic methods, treatment and prevention.

Materials and methods. The latest information from scientific articles (PubMed, UpToDate databases) is collected and systematized.

Conclusion. Targeted adherence to treatment would reduce prevalence and prevent hospitalization and surgical treatment. The best diagnostic method to detect kidney and urinary tract stones of different composition is computed tomography without contrast. The most commonly used method of treatment is remote lithotripsy. One of the most important tasks after removing a stone is to determine its type, as this is the only way to apply preventive treatment and prevent recurrence. In this article, we will review the prevalence of nephrolithiasis, etiopathogenesis, the most important diagnostic and treatment methods, and disease prevention.


Keywords: kidney stones, nephrolithiasis, risk factors, stone, computed tomography.