1Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania
Myopia is a widespread disease, found in more than half of the world’s population and the prevalence of this disease is expected to increase. If it is not treated, it can lead to blindness. Thus, understanding etiology and epidemiology can help to treat, reduce morbidity and progression of myopia. This rapid increase in myopia cases is determined by genetic factors, but it is not the only cause. Current research shows that myopia develops due to genetic and environmental factors. Short-sighted patients who have both of their parents with myopia are proof that genetic factors are related to myopia development. Also, studies show that myopia is related to illumination and time spent at work watching nearby. Considerable efforts have been made to slow the progression of myopia due to severe complications such as macular degeneration, retinal detachment, glaucoma and cataract.
The increasing prevalence of myopia and advanced myopia is a huge burden not only for the ill patient but also for society. Myopia related visual problems and various complications worry doctors and encourage them to evaluate strategies on how to cope with worldwide illness. Practice shows that the progression of myopia may slow down the disease. In this article, it is discussed how to prevent myopia from occurring. Individual treatment depends on age, patient characteristics, drug availability, patient motivation, patient expectations, and disease progression. This article also covers the efficiency and efficacy of long-term drug use, the impact of eyeglasses and contact lenses on the fight against myopia.
Keywords: myopia, atropine, contact lenses, spectacles, prevention of myopia.