HIV-associated extrapulmonary Mycobacterium avium infection: a case report and literature review

Ieva Berankytė1, Greta Bulotaitė2, Ligita Jančorienė3,4

1,2 Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania

3Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Dermatovenerology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania

4Centre of Infectious Diseases Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Clinics, Vilnius, Lithuania


Aims: to present a case illustrating HIV-associated extrapulmonary Mycobacterium avium infection with a liver cirrhosis caused by hepatitis C virus infection and to prepare the literature review.

Case report. A 51-year-old patient was diagnosed with HIV (stage C3), chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis and M. avium lymphadenitis- a rare opportunistic infection. The patient was treated with a standard combination of antiretrovirals and a 12-month course of combination of antituberculous antibiotics. During treatment, the patient was hospitalized due to fever and a maculopapular rash. Rifampicin was added to the treatment. A positive response was observed, with a regression of clinical symptoms of lymphadenitis and improvement in CD4 count and HIV viral load control.

Methods. A literature review on “PubMed” database was conducted. Full articles in English were analyzed. No time restriction was applied to citations. Information regarding the clinical case was obtained by consulting the patient’s file.

Keywords: HIV, AIDS, nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), M. avium complex (MAC), antiretroviral therapy (ART).