Capsule endoscopy: a literature review

Klaudijus Baranauskas1, Justina Palubinskienė1, Ugnė Kulnickaitė1

1Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Medical Academy, Faculty of Medicine


Background: Capsule endoscopy, also known as wireless capsule endoscopy, is a non-invasive gastrointestinal examination that uses a pill camera to take images of the intestinal lumen. It is safe, painless and does not require sedation, particularly useful when traditional endoscopic procedures fail. Also, the application of this procedure provides the missing part to fibrogastroscopy and colonoscopy – more accurate detection of small bowel pathologies.Aim: to evaluate the application of capsular endoscopy, its clinical significance and expectations for the future.

Methods: the literature was conducted using the ”PubMed” database. The literature research was conducted using predetermined keywords. More than 30 publications were analyzed on the subject of capsule endoscopy.

Results: Having conducted the literature review we determined that capsule endoscopy is an effective and safe method for detecting pathologies of the small intestine and other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. However, the use of such technology is still limited by insufficient battery capacity, high financial costs, and the inability to perform biopsies or therapeutic treatments during the procedure. Therefore, further studies and research are required to enable wider application of this method in practice.  Discussion: Capsule endoscopy will most likely replace standard endoscopy over the next few decades. Several research groups throughout the world are working to develop new multifunctional capsules with diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities that will solve the current shortcomings of this technology

Keywords: capsule endoscopy, endoscopy, technique, indications, contraindications, complications.