Acute kidney failure: etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and outcomes

Arvilė Gadeikytė1  

1 Republican Vilnius University Hospital


Acute kidney injury is a worsening function of kidneys, leading to a rise in serum creatinine and a fall in urine output. This disease is a complex clinical disorder associated with poor outcomes and seen in many critically ill patients hospitalized in intensive care units. Causes of acute kidney injure are divided into pre-renal, renal and post-renal. Reasons include impaired kidney perfusion, exposure to nephrotoxins, outflow obstruction and kidney disease. Acute tubular necrosis is the most common cause of acute kidney injury and accounts for 45% of cases. Recovery for acute kidney injury depends on cause of injury and the severity and duration of disease. In-hospital mortality rates vary from 6% to 80%, while long-term mortality is raised in those who has survived hospitalization. Five-year survival rates in patients who were requiring renal replacement therapy range from 15% to 35%. Unfortunately, acute kidney injury is irreversible in around 5% to 7% of adults and as many as 16% of older adult patients.

Keywords: acute kidney injury, serum creatinine, urea, kidney injury.