Jonas Alkimavicius1, Algimantas Puteris2, Jurate Zekoniene1, Ruta Bendinskaite1
1Vilnius University Faculty of Medicine Institute of Odontology, Lithuania.
2Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lithuania.
Objective: The present study is aimed to compare a fluorescence-controlled Er: YAG (erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet) laser with hand curettes and an ultrasonic scaling device regarding time taken, tooth root surface roughness, and cementum loss in an in vitro model.
Materials and the methods: 42 extracted single rooted human teeth with calculus on the root surface were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups (n=14): Gracey hand curettes (LM-Instruments Oy), an ultrasonic scaling device (KaVo PiezoLED) or a fluorescence-controlled Er: YAG laser (KaVo Keylaser 3+). Treatment time for each tooth was recorded. Root surface average roughness (Ra) for each sample was measured using optical profilometer. Loss of cementum was assessed by histological analysis of undecalcified sections.
Results: The results revealed that the mean time needed for instrumentation was significantly different (p<0.05) between treatment groups: hand curettes – median 158s, an ultrasonic scaling device – median 106s, a laser Er: YAG – median 245s. The lowest (p<0.05) mean Ra value was observed in hand curettes group – median 482 nm. Mean Ra difference between an ultrasonic scaling device – median 1029 nm and a laser Er: YAG – median 851 nm was not significant (p>0.05). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) regarding mean cementum loss between all groups: hand curettes – median 14 µm, an ultrasonic scaling device – median 16 µm and a laser Er: YAG – median 37 µm.
Conclusions: Within the limits of this in vitro study, a fluorescence-controlled Er: YAG laser was not superior to hand curettes and an ultrasonic scaling device in terms of treatment time, average surface roughness and cementum loss.
Keywords: Er: YAG laser, root debridement, subgingival calculus, roots cementum, scaling root planing, ultrasonic therapy.