Deimantė Užkuraitytė1, Eglė Jakūbaitytė1, Julija Lapiniauskaitė1
1Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Academy of Medicine
Background. The aim of review is to elucidate the risk factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diagnostic and treatment options.
Methods. The information for this review was collected using keywords related to the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the PubMed database.
Results. The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung injury that causes permanent bronchial obstruction. According to the literature, the main risk factors for COPD are tobacco smoking, air pollution, and the deficiency of α 1 antitrypsin. Tobacco causes non-infectious inflammation of the airways and lung parenchyma, then fibrosis develops and secretions are accumulating. The decreased amount of α 1 antitrypsin causes early pulmonary emphysema. The common signs and symptoms of COPD include shortness of breath, sputum, wheezing. However, spirometry itself remains as the main method for a test. The treatment of stable and acute COPD depends on the stage. The bronchodilators are commonly used as a type of medication of first choice. Nonetheless, it is important to assess the patient’s current condition and prescribe medications.
Conclusions. There are common risk factors that have a huge impact on lung changes, which provokes the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. An early diagnosis of the disease and individual treatment can improve the quality and duration of life for patients.
Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, treatment, diagnostic.