Sjogren’s syndrome symptoms and treatment: a literature review

Monika Bružaitė1

1Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius, Lithuania


Background. Sjogren’s syndrome is an autoimmune rheumatic disease that affects the body’s exocrine glands. Salivary and lacrimal glands are the most affected, systemic damage to the body is also possible. The incidence is 3.5-13.1 cases per 100,000 population. People of any age can suffer from this disease and symptoms usually appear in people between the ages of 45 and 55. Sjogren’s syndrome usually affects several organ systems, so the symptoms can be very diverse and significantly impair the quality of life.

Aim: to review the scientific literature on the symptoms, treatment and burden of Sjogren’s syndrome.

Methodology. Publications were searched in English using „PubMed” database. There were selected publications discussing Sjogren’s syndrome symptoms and treatment options, which were published during 2017-2022. After reviewing all the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 27 scientific articles were included in this literature review.

Results. Sjogren’s syndrome is a chronic autoimmune rheumatic disease associated with a high patient burden. Patients with Sjogren’s syndrome experience higher dental costs, are more likely to experience dental caries, mouth ulcers and halitosis. The most troublesome symptom for patients is dry eyes. Patients with Sjogren’s syndrome may experience peripheral neuropathy and central nervous system disease. The disease can also be manifested by cough, shortness of breath and inflammation of the upper respiratory tract. There is currently no cure for Sjogren’s syndrome, so treatment aims to reduce distressing symptoms and improve quality of life.

Conclusions. Sjogren’s syndrome can affect various organ systems. The most common symptoms are damaged eyes, mouth and dryness of the mucous membranes. The quality of life of the sick is considered to be particularly poor. The choice of treatment for Sjogren’s syndrome has not fundamentally changed in recent years – the decision is determined by the patient’s co-morbidities, the manifestation of symptoms, as well as the severity of damage to internal organs.

Keywords: Sjogren’s, Sjogren’s syndrome, xerostomia, keratoconjuctyvitis sicca.

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