Causes of dizziness: literature review

Saulė Gražulytė1

1Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius, Lithuania


Background. Dizziness is not a disease, just one of the symptoms. Therefore, there are many different types of treatments. Dizziness is usually caused by a disturbance of the vestibular organs, but there may be many other reasons. Dizziness is also caused by improper choice of drugs. In all cases, it is important to find out the pathogenesis of dizziness and choose the correct treatment.

Aim: to analyze the literature that studies the various causes of dizziness.

Methodology. The search of the literature was conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar. Publications were selected based on the following keywords: “dizziness”, “vertigo”, “nistagmus”, “nausea”, “medications side effect”, “ways to treat dizziness”. More than 1000 publications in English language were found. After reviewing the titles, 74 publications were selected. Publications that did not fit the purpose of the article were rejected. In the end it was chosen and rewieved 27 publications published in 2013-2023.

Results. Determining the cause of dizziness helps determine accompanying symptoms, the nature of the nystagmus, the duration of the dizziness, and the circumstances of its occurence. Dizziness is often caused by disorders of vestibular system, such as bening paroxysmal positional vertigo, Menier‘s disease, vestibular neuronitis. Dizziness can occur due to reduced pressure, in case of anemia. To some people it is important to change medication or their dosages to prevent from dizziness.

Conclusions. When dizziness occurs, it is important to look for its pathophysiological cause. Once the cause is found, it’s important to treat it right. In this way, many accidents and even deaths are avoided.

Keywords: cause of dizziness, types of dizzines differenciation, treatment options for dizzines.

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