Aistė Šalkauskaitė1, Kasparas Rubliauskas1
1 Faculty of Medicine, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
Prediabetes is an intermediate stage of hyperglycaemia, characterized by impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and/or an HbA1c ranging from 5.7- 6.4 percent. Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of progression to overt diabetes and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction remain central to the development of this condition. Diabetes mellitus is commonly an asymptomatic disease, thus early detection and intervention of prediabetes are vital importance. Several intervention studies have demonstrated that onset of diabetes can be prevented or delayed with intensive lifestyle modification and oral antidiabetic agents including metformin, thiazolidinediones and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. This article discusses the definition of the term prediabetes, its pathophysiology, possible diagnostic measures, and current options available for treatment.
Keywords: prediabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose, diabetes prevention, cardiology.