Age, gender, risk factors and comorbidity relation with occurrence and outcomes of community associated pneumonia



Community associated pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common causes of the death among people older than 65 years old. Older age, severity of a disease, comorbidities, especialy chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are the main risk factors. The  main aim is to determine risk factors, comorbiddities which have had impact for outcomes of CAP.

Aims: To determine the age and gender distribution among CAP patients. To find out the prevalence of risk factors among patients with pneumonia and connection with outcomes. To determine the prevalence of comorbid  conditions and connection with outcomes.

Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed from period 2009 to 2015 at Kaunas clinical hospital for patients who were treated 2009-2015 for CAP.  Analysed variables: age, gender, outcomes,  severity of CAP evaluated by SCAP scale. Risk factors: acute respiratory infection, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, alcohol, age > 65, immunodeficiency, continued use of glucocorticoids, impaired consciousness, dysphagia, stress, heart failure, diabetes, gastro esophageal reflux, hypoventilation, artificial lung ventilation, tracheostomy. Commorbidities: liver, heart, kidney, respiratory system, endocrinic, autoimune, oncologic diseases. Statistical data analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0. Statistical  confidence value p < 0,05.

Conclusions: 1. Bigger part of patients were male. Female were older. 2. Most of patients have had 3 risk factors.  Risk factor average was 4,42 ± 1,95. The most common risk factor was acute respiratory infection, chronic pulmonary disease, age >65, heart failure.  Patients which had more risk factors had siginifcantly higher mortality rate and more frequent  severe CAP. 3 Most of patients had 3 risk factors. Average was 2,8 ± 1,31. Most common risk factors: diagnosed respiratory system and heart failure diseases. Severe CAP significantly higher was for those patients who have had more comorbidities.